Volume 2, Issue 8, November 2011

Maximizing a Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Network by Scheduling
Pages: 1-6 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (271 K)
Rakhi Khedikar, Dr. Avichal Kapur and Yogesh Survanshi
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Gudgaon Campus (Delhi NCR), India
Director (Quality & Systems), Manipal International University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
YC College of Engineering, Hingna Rd Nagpur, India

Abstract —
The increase in the demand for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has intensified studies which aim to obtain energy-efficient solutions, since the energy storage limitation is critical in those systems. Traditional methods for sensor scheduling use either sensing coverage or network connectivity, but rarely both Schedule sensor nodes work alternatively by configuring some of them an off-duty status that has lower energy consumption than the normal on-duty one. In a single wireless sensor network, sensors assume two main functionalities: sensing and communication. Minimizing energy consumption in a highly dense wireless sensor network needs to maximize off-duty nodes in both domains. “The communication range is twice the sensing range” is the sufficient condition and the tight lower bound to ensure that complete coverage preservation implies connectivity among active node. In this paper we present the different scheduling methods of increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network. analyze and classify the research of the network lifetime for wireless sensor network, the important point is to introduce some scheduling the methods of the researchers’ uses to maximize network lifetime and our proposed work on increasing the lifetime by scheduling. Depletion of these finite energy batteries can result in a change in network topology or in the end of network life itself. Hence, prolonging the life of wireless sensor networks is important. The network lifetime can depend on many other factors too. In this paper we analyze and classify the research of the network lifetime for wireless sensor network, the important point is to introduce the method the researchers’ uses to maximize network lifetime.
 Index Terms Wireless Sensor Networks, Energy Limited, Scheduling, Energy Efficiency and Self-Organization
Residual Energy Aware Adaptive Clustering for Multimedia Data in Wireless Sensor Network
Pages: 7-11 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (343 K)
Z. A. Jaffery, Moinuddin and Munish Kumar
Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi, India
School of Information Technology, CDAC, Noida, India

Abstract —
Wireless Sensor Network consists of large number of Sensor Nodes. The main aim is to increase the lifetime of the network as the sensors are deployed mainly to perform unattended operations like Environmental Monitoring, Seismic activity Detection, Industrial Monitoring and Control etc. All these activities require Robust Wireless Communication Protocol with low power consumption. This paper describes how the optimal numbers of Cluster Heads (CH) are elected among the sensor nodes so that energy is optimally consumed for the cluster members to interact with Cluster Heads. The role of the Cluster Head is rotated so that the energy consumption can be distributed evenly and the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Network can be extended. The experimental results shows that the life time of the network is extended as compared to other approaches like Low Energy Adaptive Cluster Hierarchy LEACH.
 Index Terms Wireless Sensor Networks, Cluster Head, Base Station, Clustering, Network Lifetime and Energy Efficiency
Designing Different Models of Robust IP/MPLS over DWDM Networks
Pages: 12-18 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (428 K)
Marko Rožman
University in Ljubljana, Slovenia

Abstract —
Both IP/MPLS and DWDM layers can provide various resilient schemes to protect traffic from disruptions due to network failures. At the same time, both technologies provide the ability to realise virtual private networks. The aim of this article is to identify an optimal solution which provides a compromise between resilience time and network cost for different network models according to the network layer on which the different resilience schemes are implemented and the network layer on which virtual private networks are realised. Extended mathematical models for individual network layers for optimization are proposed to compare the different network models with the ASON network architecture. We prove that the optimal network topology applies hot standby path protection and virtual private networks on the IP/MPLS network layer. The DWDM network layer is in this case used as a pure transport platform.
 Index Terms Backbone Networks Optimization, Resilience, Virtual Private Network, Traffic Demands and Traffic Flows
Secured-destination Sequenced Distance Vector (SSDV) Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Pages: 19-22 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (315 K)
Dr. S. Santhosh Baboo and S. Ramesh
Department of Computer Applications, D.G. Vaishnav College, Arumbakkam, Chennai, India
Dravidian University, Kuppam, India

Abstract —
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a group of wireless mobile nodes dynamically shaping a provisional network devoid of the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized management. In MANETs, security is the major challenge due to the dynamic topology which is because of the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, we propose a design and develop a secure methodology incorporated with the routing mechanism without having any compromise on the performance metrics viz., throughput, and packet delivery fraction. Not only just improving the throughput and packet delivery fraction it will also reduce the end-to-end delay and MAC overhead along with reduced packet loss. We name it as Secured-destination Sequenced Distance Vector (SSDV) routing. It adopts several features of the already existing protocol named Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV). The simulation results prove that our proposed protocol SSDV outperforms DSDV in all performance aspects.
 Index Terms Routing Protocols, SSDV, Networks, Methodology and Throughput
An all Approach for Multi-Focus Image Fusion Using Neural Network
Pages: 23-29 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (991 K)
Madhavi R. and Prof. K. Ashok Babu
Sri Indu College of Engineering, JNTU University, HYD, India

Abstract —
‘Image Fusion’ is the Information from multiple images which are combined to generate the new image, the generated image is more suitable for humans and machines for further image-processing tasks like image segmentation, edge detection, stereo matching, enhancement, extraction and recognition. Novel feature-level multi-focus image fusion technique is proposed in this paper, which fuses multi-focus images using classification. In this technique, Multi-focus images of ten pairs are divided into blocks and the most favorable block size for each image was found in an adaptive manner. The resultant block feature vectors are fed to feed towards neural network. The neural networks are trained in such a way that, the trained neural networks are used to fuse any pair of multi-focus images. The proposed and implemented technique used in this paper is more efficient and useful; to highlight the efficiency we have performed broad experimentation on this technique. The comparisons of the different approaches with previous methods along with the current method by calculating different parameters are also provided.
 Index Terms Image Fusion, Features, Neural Networks and Block Size
Performance Analysis of Congestion Control Scheme for Mobile Communication Network
Pages: 30-37 (8) | [Full Text] PDF (622 K)
Ojesanmi O.A, Oyebisi T.O., Oyebode E.O. and Makinde O.E.
Department of Physical Sciences, Ajayi Crowther Universiy, Oyo, Nigeria
Technology Planning and Development Unit, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Abstract —
The study formulated a dynamic channel allocation model with one-level buffering in controlling congestion in Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) network with a view to prevent call loss or degradation in quality of service of calls. The system model was implemented using object oriented programming. An algorithm was developed for accepting or rejecting of calls using ticketing scheduling. Various parameters were identified with a mathematical model to support the scheme using Markov chain technique. A simulation program using object oriented programming approach was developed to evaluate the performance of the scheme based on three performance metrics: Resource utilization, average queue length and blocking probabilities. A performance comparison with the existing scheme was tested based on the analysis of simulated model results obtained. A prototype of the scheme was implemented using Java programming language. Results showed that between the arrival rate of 0.01 to 0.08 Erlang, the throughput ranged from 0.1 and 0.6 in an increasing order for the proposed model, while the existing model also witnessed increased throughput but within the range 0.08 to 0.3. .....
 Index Terms New Call, Handoff Call, Buffer, GSM, Allocation, Channel and Cell
XML Keyword Search: Coarseness Evaluation Under Ambiguity Concerns for Effective Results
Pages: 38-42 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (401 K)
K. Sampth kumar, Lokeshwari and J. Srikanth
Department of CSE, Aurora Engineering College, Bhongir, Nalgonda, A.P, India

Abstract —
An XML search engine XSearch that addresses an open drawback in XML keyword search: given relevant matches to keywords, the way to compose question results properly in order that they will be effectively ranked and simply digested by users. The approaches adopted within the literature generate either overwhelmingly giant results or fragmentary results, each of which can cause the ranking schemes to be ineffective. Intuitively, every question features a search target and every result ought to contain precisely one instance of the search target together with its proof. We have a tendency to developed XSearch that composes atomic and intact question results driven by users’ search targets.
 Index Terms Keyword Search, XML and XSearch
Classification of Different Texture using Wavelet Transform based on Liner Regression Model- A Neural Approach
Pages: 43-51 (9) | [Full Text] PDF (2411 K)
Prof. Rakhi Khedikar, Yogesh Survanshi and Shalli Goel
Department of Electronics Engineering, Dronacharya College of Engineering Gurgaon, India
Department of Electronics Engineering, YC College of Engineering, Nagpur, India

Abstract —
In this paper the classification of textured image using feature extraction with linear regression model based on wavelet transform was studied. Feature extraction algorithm using wavelet decomposed images of an image. The features are constructed from the different combination of sub-band images. These features offer a better discriminating strategy for texture classification and enhance the classification rate. It observed that the wavelet transform as an important multiresolution analysis tool has already been commonly applied to texture analysis and classification. Nevertheless, it ignores the structural information while capturing the spectral information of the texture image at different scales. We propose a texture analysis and classification approach with the linear regression model based on the wavelet transform. This method is motivated by the observation that there exists a distinctive correlation between the sample images, belonging to the same kind of texture, at different frequency regions obtained by 2-D wavelet packet transform. Experimentally, it was observed that this correlation varies from texture to texture. The linear regression model is employed to analyze this correlation and extract texture features that characterize the samples. Back propagation algorithm is used for texture classification. Therefore, our method considers not only the frequency regions but also the correlation between these regions.
 Index Terms Texture Classification, Texture Analysis, Wavelet Transform, Multi-resolution, Tree-structure and Liner Regression
Cryptography – Analysis of Enhanced Approach for Secure Online Exam Process Plan
Pages: 52-57 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (340 K)
N. Samba Siva Rao, P. Harshita, S. Dedeepya and P. Ushashree
Varadhman College of Engineering, India
PRRM Engineering College, India
P. Indra Reddy Memorial Engineering College, India

Abstract —
To Conduct the Exam for thousand people offline process have several problems, to avoid those problems with gone for the process online exam is a field that is very popular and made many security assurances. Even though it fails to control cheating, online exams have not been widely adopted well, but online education is adopted and using all over the world without any security issues. Education learning from online process not have any problem and don’t disturb to any one, through online test plan we need to control so many things here our work proposes an enhanced secure filled online exam management environment mediated by group cryptography techniques using remote monitoring and control of ports and input. The target domain of this is online exams for any subject’s contests in any level of study, as well as exams in online university courses with students in various remote locations. An easy solution to the issue of security and cheating for online exams and uses an enhanced Security Control system in the Online Exam (SeCOnE) which is based on group cryptography with an e-monitoring scheme. This paper also determines the comparison effects of existing system, and the proposed processes involved in handling failures.
 Index Terms Online Exam, Cryptography, SeCOnE, Security and Cheating
Visual Cryptography Authentication for Data Matrix Codes
Pages: 58-62 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (1601 K)
M. Agnihotra Sharma and M. Chinna Rao
Kakinada Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kakinada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract —
An Identity Card is any document which may be used to verify aspects of a identity. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). It plays in the society, threats of fraud, tampering, and identity theft arises. Thus, security and authenticity of these ID cards and their owners prove to be of much necessity. This paper goal is to make use of Visual Cryptography and 2D data matrix codes to address these issues. Visual Cryptography is a secret sharing scheme where a confidential image is encrypted into noise-like secure shares, which can be reconstructed visually by superimposing the shares. Extended Visual Cryptography on the other hand, makes use of recognizable images as shares to the confidential image. In this paper, the information in the ID cards are encoded into two 2D data matrix codes, which then are used in the two levels of extended visual cryptography. The first level provides authentication of the ID card, and the second level secures the identity of the ID card owner.
 Index Terms Visual Cryptography, Extended Visual Cryptography, 2D Data Matrix Code, Data Matrix Code, Seed Image and Share Image
An Effective Image Retrieval System Using Textual and Visual Properties
Pages: 63-68 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (841 K)
S. Swetha and Prof. K. Ashok Babu
Sri Indu College of Engineering and Technology, India

Abstract —
Image retrieval is a challenging task that requires efforts from image processing, link structure analysis, and web text retrieval. Since content-based image retrieval is still considered very difficult, most current large scale web image search engines exploit text and link structure to understand the content of the web images. However, local textual information, such as caption, filenames and adjacent text, is not always reliable and informative. And also, there is no commercial web image search engine support RF because of scalability, efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, global texture information should be taken into account to support RF and a web image retrieval system makes relevance judgment. In this paper, we propose a re-ranking method to improve web image retrieval by reordering the images retrieved from an image search engine using RF. The re-ranking process should be applicable to any image search engines with little effort and experimental results on a database contain three million web images to show RF is effective.
 Index Terms Image Retrieval, Relevance Feedback, Implicit Feedback and RF Fusion
How to Measure Coupling in AOP from UML Diagram
Pages: 69-73 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (329 K)
Sushil Garg, K. S. Kahlon and P. K. Bansal
CSED, RIMT–IET, Mandi GobindGarh, Punjab, India
Research Department, GNDU, Amritsar, Punjab, India
MIMIT, Malout, Punjab, India

Abstract —
The aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a new paradigm for improving the system’s features such as modularity, readability and maintainability. Aspect-oriented software development (AOSD) is a new technique to support separation of concerns in software development. In aspect-oriented (AO) systems, the basic components are aspects or classes, which consist of attributes (aspect or class instance variables) and those modules such as advice, intertype declarations, pointcuts, joinpoints and methods. Coupling is an internal software attribute that can be used to indicate the degree of interdependence among the components of a software system. Thus, in AO systems, the coupling is mainly about the degree of interdependence among aspects, classes and interfaces. To test this hypothesis, good coupling measures for AO systems are needed. In this paper, we apply a coupling metrics suite on UML diagram of AOP. We first present a UML diagram for AO systems which is specially designed to count the dependencies between aspects and classes, aspect and interfaces and other aspect oriented features in the systems. Based on this UML diagram, we formally define various coupling measures in terms of different types of dependencies between aspects, classes and interfaces.
 Index Terms Aspect Oriented Programming (AOP), Unified Modeling Language (UML), Aspect Oriented (AO) Systems and Aspect Oriented Software Development (AOSD)
A Review on E-Commerce Empowering Women’s
Pages: 74-78 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (233 K)
Sunita S. Padmannavar
Lecturer, sunitapdm@gmail.com

Abstract —
E-commerce is not a new concept. Electronic data has given the prospect of eliminating paper documents, reducing costs and improving efficiency by exchanging business information in electronic form. The present paper studies how women have gained a foothold in many e-commerce areas. It also studies how e-commerce helped in empowering women? And what is the role of government in the development of e-commerce in developing countries? In B2C e-commerce, most success stories of women-empowered enterprises have to do with marketing unique products to consumers with disposable income. While it is generally agreed that the private sector should take the lead role in the development and use of e-commerce, the government plays an instrumental role in encouraging e-commerce growth through concrete practicable measures.
 Index Terms E-Commerce, B2C, B2B, SCM and E-Government
Face Recognition using PCA and Feed Forward Neural Networks
Pages: 79-82 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (321 K)
M.S.R.S. Prasad, S.S. Panda, G. Deepthi and V. Anisha
Department of CSE, Regency Institute of Technology, Yanam, India
Department of IT, Regency Institute of Technology, Yanam, India

Abstract —
Face recognition is one of biometric methods, to identify given face image using main features of face. In this paper, a neural based algorithm is presented, to detect frontal views of faces. The dimensionality of face image is reduced by the Principal component analysis (PCA) and the recognition is done by the Feed forward Neural Network (FFNN). Here 50 face images from the database are taken and some performance metrics like Acceptance ratio and Execution time are calculated. Neural based Face recognition is robust and has better performance of more than 90 % acceptance ratio.
 Index Terms Face Recognition, Principal Component Analysis, Feed Forward Neural Network and Acceptance Ratio
A Novel Chain Based Wireless Data Sensor Network (ECBSN) Technique
Pages: 83-87 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (290 K)
Shilpa Mahajan and Jyoteesh Mahotra

Abstract —
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have received tremendous attention in recent years because of the development of sensor devices, as well as wireless communication technologies. WSNs make it easier to monitor and control physical environments from remote locations and present many significant advantages over wired sensor networks for a variety of civilian and military applications .A WSN is usually randomly deployed in inaccessible terrains, disaster areas, or polluted environments, where battery replacement or recharge is difficult or even impossible to be performed. For this reason, network lifetime is of crucial importance to a WSN. To prolong network lifetime, efficient utilization of energy is considered with highest priority. In this paper, we propose a energy efficient chain based network, (ECBSN) which ensures maximum utilization of network energy. Later, a comparison of ECBSN with PEGASIS has been done and found out that energy consumption can be decreased up to 15-20% and reliability of a network can be considerably enhanced using this method.
 Index Terms Computer Network Reliability, Cost, Energy Conservation, Lifetime Estimation and Wireless Sensor Network
Analysis & Study of Application Layer Distributed Denial of Service Attacks for Popular Websites
Pages: 88-92 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (310 K)
V. Venkata Ramana, P. Shilpa Choudary and Maya B. Dhone
Gurunank Engineering College, India

Abstract —
Application Layer is the most important for development lifecycle, Application layer Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack is a continuous threat to the World Wide Web. Derived from the lower layers, new application-layer-based DDoS attacks utilizing legitimate HTTP requests over to victim resources are more unavailable. This issue may be more critical when such attacks mimic or occur during the flash crowd event of a popular websites. Our technique presents on the detection of such new DDoS attacks, a novel scheme based on document popularity and also Access Matrix is defined to capture the spatial-temporal patterns of a normal flash crowd. A novel attack detector based on hidden semi-Markov model is proposed to describe the dynamics of Access Matrix and to detect the attacks. The entropy of document popularity fitting to the model is used to detect the potential DDoS attacks in application-layer. This paper analysis the attack detector with existing system drawback which presents proposed approach more efficient.
 Index Terms Application Layer, Distributed System, Denial of Service and Attacks
Analysis of Crash Recovery Failure Detection with Quality of Services
Pages: 93-97 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (384 K)
B. Sushma, B.V. Rama Krishna and Muni Sekhar Velpruru
Department of Information Technology, Vardhaman College of Engineering, Hyderabad, India
St. Mary’s College of Engineering and Technology, India

Abstract —
We develop a probabilistic model of the behavior of a crash-recovery target, i.e. one which has the ability to recover from the crash state. We show that the fail-free and the crash-stop are special cases of the crash-recovery run with mean time to failure (MTTF) approaching to infinity and mean time to recovery (MTTR) approaching to infinity, respectively. We compare the previous work QoS metrics to allow the measurement of the recovery speed, and the definition of the completeness property of a failure detector. Then, the impact of the dependability of the crash-recovery target on the QoS bounds for such a crash-recovery failure detector is analyzed using general dependability metrics, such as MTTF and MTTR, based on an approximate probabilistic model of the two-process failure detection system. Then according to our approximate model, we show how to estimate the failure detector’s parameters to achieve a required QoS, based NFD-S algorithm analytically, and how to execute the configuration procedure of this crash-recovery failure detector. Our analysis indicates that variation in the MTTF and MTTR of the monitored process can have a significant impact on the QoS of our failure detector.
 Index Terms Crash Recovery, Failures, Metrics and QoS
Implementation of SaaS in a Cloud Computing Environment
Pages: 98-101 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (712 K)
Venkata Rao J. and D. Bhargava Reddy
Department of CSE, K. L. University, Vaddeswaram, Guntur (dt), Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract —
Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Cloud computing resources can be accessed from any computer on the Internet. It is, however, does not just mean any computer, but any kind of computer. Clouds provide processing power, which is made possible through distributed computing. Cloud computing can be seen as a traditional desktop computing model, where the resources of a single desktop or computer used to complete tasks, and an expansion of the client/server model. The paper describes a model for implementing the software as a service (SaaS) in a cloud model.
 Index Terms Cloud, Virtual, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS and Virtualization