Volume 5, Issue 11, November 2014

A Hybrid Model for Linux Kernel Reliability Estimation
Pages: 1-10 (10) | [Full Text] PDF (576K)
Tamer Sh. Mazen and Mohamed B. Senousy
Department of Management Information System, Modern Academy, Cairo, Egypt
Department of Computer and Information System Technology, Sadat Academy, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract -
Reliability is the most important performance issue in software processes. But, in the real world problems there are limitations for using conventional reliability. Fuzzy logic has proved to be effective in expressing uncertainties in different fields, including software reliability. In this paper, for both series and parallel systems, the reliability has been analyzed using the fuzzy concepts. Some characteristics such as the Mean Time To Failure (MTTF) have been evaluated considering that all the operating units have increasable time varying failure rates with fuzzy triangular membership functions. This paper includes a numerical example to estimate Linux kernel reliability. Using Chi-Square test we approved that bugs are curved with exponential distribution.
 Index Terms - Software Reliability, Mean Time to Failure, Fuzzy Failure Rates, Triangular Fuzzy Number, ∝-Cut and Open-Source Linux Kernel
EAGRP: Energy Aware Geographic Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Pages: 11-16 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (358K)
Adel Gaafar A. Elrahim
Electrical & Electronics Engineering Dept., Red Sea University, Port Sudan, Sudan

Abstract -
In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data forwarding protocol called Energy Aware Geographic Routing Protocol (EAGRP) for wireless sensor networks to extend the life time of the network. In EAGRP, both position information and energy are available at nodes used to route packets from sources to destination. This will prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes; hence the network life time and thus get higher packet delivery ratio and minimal compromise of energy efficiency. The proposed protocol is an efficient and energy conservative routing technique for multi-hop wireless sensor networks. The routing design of EAGRP is based on two parameters: location and energy levels of nodes. Each node knows the location and energy level of its neighbors. The performance measures have been analyzed with variable number of nodes. The simulations are carried out for different number of nodes employing these algorithms considering the different metrics. Simulation results have shown that the EAGRP performs competitively against the other routing protocol in terms of packet delivery ratio, throughput, energy consumption, and delay. Consequently, it can be concluded that EGARP can efficiently and effectively extend the network lifetime by increasing the successful data delivery rate.
 Index Terms - Routing Protocol, Wireless Sensor Networks, Energy Aware, Position Information and Life Time
Review of Gateway Selection Schemes for MANET to Internet Connectivity
Pages: 17-23 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (324K)
Elmustafa Sayed Ali Ahmed and Rashid A. Saeed
Electrical Engineering Department, Red Sea University, Sudan
School of Electronics Engineering, Sudan University of Science and Technology, Sudan

Abstract -
Nowadays MANETs becomes a most types of the networks used in many applications, which support a communications between several sources and destinations without using infrastructure mode. Since these networks are infrastructure free, so it required a mechanism to route the information from the sources to destinations and the routing protocols has been studied deeply. Other consideration that becomes a most important issue is how to connect the MANET to the Internet and the most important parameter is how to interface between these networks. Gateways are most important mechanism to interface between these networks and it must be stable to ensure good quality of services for MANET and Internet connectivity. The main challenges in MANET-Internet connectivity are gateway discovery and gateway selection. Many solutions are proposed and implemented by the different authors/researchers to discover the gateway to the internet so that gateway discovery as we know has been deeply investigated. The second challenge is how to select an optimal gateway and a few different mechanisms have been proposed to select gateways. In this paper we present a review of various gateway selection schemes which are used in MANET to Internet connectivity.
 Index Terms - MANET, Internet, Gateway Discovery, Gateway Selection, QoS, SAW and Generic Algorithm
A Framework to Enhance Classification Accuracy For Web Learning System
Pages: 24-27 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (226K)
L. Jayasimman
Department of Computer Science, Srimad Andavan College of Arts and Science, Tiruchirappalli, India

Abstract -
In this research paper, a framework for cognitive based adaptive Web Learning System is presented. It focuses on users’ cognitive learning process and activities, as well as the technology support needed. This research paper applies Data mining algorithms and Neural Network-based classification algorithms. To develop an effective Web Learning System, learner’s cognition and cognitive load should be considered. Individualized web learning system is necessary to improve the learning activities. Particle Swarm Optimization has many advantages then the other Genetic Algorithm. Particle Swarm Optimization has more effective classification accuracy than the Genetic Algorithm. The proposed research work was tested with the exiting Data Mining algorithms and evolutionary algorithms like Parallel Multi Layer Perceptron, Genetic Optimized Parallel Multi Layer Perceptron, and Particle Swarm Optimized Parallel Multi Layer Perceptron, to predict and to enhance the classification of learners. Combination of Multi Layer Perceptron, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization gives better classification accuracy then other methods. PSO PMLP (Particle Swarm Optimized Parallel Multi Layer Perceptron) Neural network algorithm has two betterments then the existing PMLP.
 Index Terms - Web Learning System, Cognition & Cognitive Load, Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization
A Survey for Cognitive Radio Network
Pages: 28-33 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (559K)
Adel Gaafar A. Elrahim and Nada Mohamed Elfatih
Electrical & Electronics Engineering Dept., Red Sea University, Port Sudan, Sudan

Abstract -
The rapid growth in wireless communications has contributed to a huge demand on the deployment of new wireless services in both the licensed and unlicensed frequency spectrum. Cognitive radio (CR) is the enabling technology for supporting dynamic spectrum access: the policy that addresses the spectrum scarcity problem that is encountered in many countries. The fundamental task of each CR user in CR networks, in the most primitive sense, is to detect the licensed users, also known as primary users (PUs), if they are present and identify the available spectrum if they are absent. This is usually achieved by sensing the RF environment, a process called spectrum sensing. Spectrum sensing is a key function of cognitive radio to prevent the harmful interference with licensed users. Many factors in practice such as multipath fading, shadowing, and the receiver uncertainty problem may significantly compromise the detection performance in spectrum sensing. In this paper overview of cognitive radio and the CR network architecture is provided. Then main challenges of spectrum management are discussed. We highlight some of the recent information theoretic limits, models, and design of these promising networks. Moreover, a survey of cooperative sensing is provided to address the issues of cooperation method, cooperative gain, and cooperation overhead.
 Index Terms - Cognitive Radio, Spectrum Sensing, Primary Users, Spectrum Management and Cooperative Sensing