Volume 3, Issue 4, April 2012

Optimized Placement of Gateways for Routing Protocols in Wireless Mesh Networks
Pages: 1-7 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (659 K)
I.A. Shah, S. Jan and I. Khan
Wireless Networks and Communications Centre, Brunel University, London, UK
University of Engineering and Technology, Mardan Campus, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Abstract -
Due to the multi-hop nature combined with the relative stable and static topology, Wireless Mesh Networks are considered as the future candidate to provide the broadband wireless access in the user’s premises. Unlike the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, Wireless Mesh Networks are under the authority of a central administration having built in infrastructure. Previous studies have established that the placement of Gateway routers inside the Wireless Mesh Networks’ topology have a great impact on the network overall performance. This paper investigates the response of different routing protocols to the Gateway placement in the Wireless Mesh Networks in terms of routing overhead, network latency and Packet Delivery Ratio. Two different scenarios have been extensively simulated with different number of network flows and the performance of these routing protocols has been analyzed. The simulation results show that overall the proactive routing protocol outperforms the reactive one, while the Gateways placed at the center of the network topology enhances the network performance.
 Index Terms - Wireless Mesh Networks, Networks, Gateway, Router, AODV and OLSR
Analysis of ANN-based Echo State Network Intrusion Detection in Computer Networks
Pages: 8-13 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (335 K)
Dr. S. Saravanakumar, T.A. Mohanaprakash, Ms. R. Dharani and Dr. C. Jaya Kumar
Department of CSE, Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai, India
Department of IT, Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai, India
Department of CSE, RMK Engineering College, Chennai, India

Abstract -
The complexity of attacks on computer systems are increasing rapidly. The current network is complicated due to the high throughput and the multi- uniformity of actions. Intrusion detection is a process of monitoring the various computer networks and systems for violations of security and this can be automatically done with the help of an intrusion detection system. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a critical component for secure information management. IDS plays a major role in detecting and disrupting various attacks before cooperating with the software. This paper presents the investigations carried out on different neural network structures using a number of algorithms for intrusion detection. Also this paper proposed an Echo State Network (ESN) structures for intrusion detection. The proposed algorithm has faster convergence and better performance in IDS. The objective of this paper is to implement the ESN algorithm and compare with other neural network algorithms in a networked environment. The performances of different methods have been implemented and compared using the Knowledge Discovery and Data mining (KDD) dataset to experiment the performance of ESN in classifying the Local Area Network (LAN) intrusion packets.
 Index Terms - ANN, Denial of Service, Echo State Network, Intrusion Detection, Malicious Attacks and Neural Networks
New Approach for Color Image Compression
Pages: 14-19 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (612 K)
Walaa M. Abd-Elhafiez
Mathematical Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University-82524, Sohag, Egypt

Abstract -
It is well-known that edges contain semantically important image information. In this paper, color image coding based on edge-detection is introduced. Modification of the JPEG technique to improve the color image compression is proposed. The process is based on the modification of the quantized value of the DCT coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is demonstrated by results, especially, when faced to the method presented in the recently published papers.
 Index Terms - Edge Detection, DCT, Image Compression and JPEG
Artificial Intelligence Technique Applied to Intrusion Detection
Pages: 20-25 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (267 K)
K.P. Kaliyamurthie and Dr. R.M. Suresh
Department of IT, Bharath University, Chennai, India
Department of CSE, RMD Engineering College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract -
Communication network is facilitated with different protocol .Each protocol supported to increase the network performance in a secured manner. In communication process, user’s connectivity, violations of policy on access of information are handles through intrusion. Intrusion prevention is the process of performing intrusion detection and attempting to stop detected possible incidents. It focused on identifying possible incidents, logging information about them, attempting to stop them, and reporting them to security administrators. However, organizations use Intrusion detection and prevention system (IDPS) for other purposes, such as identifying problems with security policies, documenting existing threats, and determining individuals from violating security policies. Communication architecture is built up on IP. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) protocol is tightly integrated with IP. ICMP messages, delivered in IP packets, are used for out-of-band messages related to network operation or mis-operation. In this paper describes about HDLC, ICMP protocol sequences which is used to detect the intrusion on hybrid network and its attributes are recommend the standardized protocol for the intrusion detection process. This standardization protocol compare the previous part of the research of HDLC and ICMP protocols.
 Index Terms - High Level Data Link Control (HDLC), Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and Network Instruction Detection
Deploying Business Virtual Appliances on Open Source Cloud Computing
Pages: 26-30 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (549 K)
Tran Van Lang and Nguyen Trong Duc
Institute of Applied Mechanics and Information Technology (IAMI/VAST)
Post and Telecommunications Institute of Technology in HCMCity

Abstract -
The Cloud computing emerges as a new computing paradigm which aims to provide reliable, customized and QoS guaranteed dynamic computing environments for end-users. Virtual machines (VMs) provide a virtualization solution to the security and resource management issues that arise in isolated environment. We encounter the need to deploy an open source cloud computing and integrate VM (a virtual business server) with business applications into cloud models and the existing resource management infrastructure. To address such requirements, the paper describes an approach to deploying business virtual appliances on Open-source Scientific Cloud computing based on the Globus Virtual Workspace Service (Nimbus project) as an Infrastructure as a Service.
 Index Terms - Cloud Computing, Grid Computing, Virtualization, IaaS and Virtual Appliance
An Integrated Synchronized Protocol for Secure Information Transmission derived from Multilevel Steganography and Dynamic Cryptography
Pages: 31-36 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (310 K)
Navneet Singh Sikarwar
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, B.S.A. College of Engineering & Technology, Mathura (U.P.), India

Abstract -
In this paper a protocol is elucidated, it is based on multilevel steganography and dynamic cryptography in the secure information transmission, because the growing possibilities of modern communications require the special means of confidential and intellectual property protection against unauthorized access and use. Especially these problems are actually for computer networks, which make possible to exchange the large amount of digital information (text, audio, video, and image). The use of multilevel steganography provides more strength compare to simple steganography technique and similarly dynamic cryptography also gives more strength compare to simple cryptography.
 Index Terms - Dynamic Key Cryptography, Multilevel Steganography, Steganography, Cryptography and Secure Communication
EAP-SAM: A Simple Authentication Mechanism for Mutual Authentication in EAP-Enabled WLANs
Pages: 37-42 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (259 K)
Suhail Ahmad, Ajaz Hussain Mir and Ghulam Rasool Beigh
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Srinagar (J&K), India

Abstract -
Authentication forms an important part of security mechanism by securing the networks from unauthorized access. The time taken by the client to authenticate to the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)-enabled Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) will have a significant impact on the real time applications particularly under mobile conditions. Also, the number of messages involved in the authentication will have a significant impact on the energy consumption as the mobile terminal is having limited energy source (battery). In this paper the quantitative analysis of Extensible Authentication Protocols is provided and the security features of these protocols are compared. The protocols compared are EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, and PEAP. A simple authentication protocol, EAP-Simple Authentication Mechanism (SAM) is proposed in this paper, consisting of reduced number of authentication messages. The reduced number of authentication messages yields the least authentication delay as well as the reduced energy consumption resulting in uninterrupted services for the real time applications.
 Index Terms - EAP, EAP-MD5, EAP-TLS, EAP-SAM and PEAP
Image Compression Algorithm Using a Fast Curvelet Transform
Pages: 43-47 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (2200 K)
Walaa M. Abd-Elhafiez
Mathematical Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag-82524, Egypt

Abstract -
In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for image compression by the curvelet transform. Curve functions are effective in representing functions that have discontinuities along straight lines. Normal wavelet transforms fail to represent such functions effectively. Modification of the traditional JPEG method based on region-of-interest coding is achieved and used curvelet transform. The modification will be done after the quantization step. In the beginning, the image is subdivided into a block of pixels; the block must be classified as foreground block or background block based on a pre-processing step. Then, keep a certain number of NxN blocks in the top left hand corner for each block and put the rest of our Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients with 0. Experimental results show that the compression performance of our method gains much improvement. Moreover, the algorithm works well for declining block effect at higher compression ratios.
 Index Terms - Curvelet transform, Edge detection, Image Compression and Region of Interest
Reduced Pixel Shifting and Improved Histogram Shifting Based Reversible Watermarking for Cartoon Images
Pages: 48-51 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (249 K)
Dr. Rajendra D. Kanphade and N. S. Narawade
Department of E&TC Engg., Dhole Patil College of Engg., Pune, Maharashtra, India
Department of Electronics Engg., Sant Gadgebaba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India

Abstract -
The Hong’s modified histogram shifting method is best method of reversible watermarking. But Hong’s modified histogram method is not suitable for cartoon images. Our improved backward histogram shifting method overcome drawback of Hong’s method. Generally PSNR decreases when embedding capacity increases. But our improved backward histogram shifting method gives more embedding capacity and high PSNR. Hong’s method becomes unable to locate minimum point after 255 as generally histogram of cartoon images concentrates at 255 pixel value, which is called as maximum point. Our backward method finds minimum point before maximum point. Our improved backward histogram shifting method shifts required pixel values to left by ‘1’ numbers which is called minimum point. The embedding capacity for cartoon images is maximum because maximum numbers of pixels are available at 255, than any other images. The complexity of our improved histogram shifting backward method is same as that of Hong’s modified histogram shifting method as both scans image twice only.
 Index Terms - Reversible Watermarking, Histogram Shifting, Embedding Capacity, Processing Time, PSNR, Backward Method and Forward Method
A Proficient Reconfiguration on Interconnection Networks
Pages: 52-57 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (271 K)
S. Mohiadeen Abdul Kadhar and Dr. T. Revathi
National College of Engineering, Tirunelveli, India
Mepco Schelenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, India

Abstract -
Network reconfiguration situation may occur frequently in interconnection networks while add or remove the components under repair. This situation may block packet forward in the path and it leads to deadlocks. Our aim is to provide the block-free, deadlock-free path and maintain the performance in high level. Many techniques are implemented so far for the above situation still we unable to achieve the maximum efficiency. In this paper we propose the most efficient algorithms SRS(Sovereign Reconfiguration System) to make deadlock freedom and establish the right path to packet forwarding process in active manner under this reconfiguration situation.
 Index Terms - Deadlock, Efficiency, Networks, SRS and Interconnection
Information Security Policy Trend as a Foundation to Protecting Information Resources
Pages: 58-62 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (234 K)
Abila James, Mutua Stephen, Wabwoba Franklin and Anselmo Peters
Asumbi Teachers College
Department of Computer Science, Masinde Muliro University of Science & Technology

Abstract -
Although, many institutions have implemented technical solutions to protect information resources from adverse events, internal security breaches continue to occur. An approach that emphasizes on information security policy within the institutions is therefore required to make security part of employees’ daily work routines. In order to develop a successful information security culture within an organization, it is worth understanding both technical and non-technical aspects of information security. The purpose of this paper is to outline the strategies and management processes behind implementing a successful Security Policy. Additionally, the paper gives recommendations for the creation of a Security Awareness Program, whose main objective is to provide staff members with a better, if not much improved understanding of the issues stated in a security policy.
 Index Terms - Education Institutions, Ethics, Information, Security and Policy
An Outlier Detection and Rectification Method in Cluster Based Wireless Sensor Network
Pages: 63-69 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (460 K)
Dr. Laxman Sahoo, Alok Ranjan Prusty and Sanjaya Kumar Sarangi
School of Computer Engineering, KIIT University, Odisha, India
Dept. of Computer Sc. and Engineering, Koustuv Institute of Technology (KIT), Odisha, India
Dept. of Computer Sc. and Engineering, Koustuv Institute of Self Domain (KISD), Odisha, India

Abstract -
The evolution of Wireless Sensor networks (WSNs) is a demandable, efficient and emerging area of Computer Science Engineering which has been currently employed in various field of engineering particularly in communication system to make it effective and reliable. For successful application of WSN it is important to maintain the basic security level, both from external and internal attacks else entire network may collapse. In the field of WSNs, if the sensed patterns that significantly deviate from the normal pattern are considered as outlier. The possible source of outlier includes noise, errors, events and malicious attack on the network. WSNs are more likely to generate outlier due to their special characteristics like constrained available with the resources causing frequent physical failure and harsh deployment area. In this paper we have investigated and experimented different outlier attack in WSN and how these attacks are efficiently detected and rectified. The usual outlier detection techniques are not directly applicable to wireless sensor network due to the nature of sensed data, specific requirements and limitations of the WSNs. Our proposed method will train and test data set for detection as well as rectification of outlier due the malicious attack and identify the affected sensor nodes in a largely deployed cluster based wireless sensor network under a common outlier detection framework which is designed by some well specified supervised learning and classification based data mining technique.
 Index Terms - Classifier, Cluster, Machine learning, Outlier, Outlier detection and rectification and Wireless Sensor Networks
Impact of Node Convergence and Divergence in AODV and OLSR Routing Protocols
Pages: 70-73 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (318 K)
M.V.H. Bhaskara Murthy, S. Madhavi, G. Ramesh Kumar and Y. Dileep Kumar
Electronics and Communication Engineering Department, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engineering, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract -
Wireless ad hoc networks must be capable self-organizing and self-configuring to handle the dynamic nature of the network. Routing protocols should be able to handle the dynamic nature, and the limited resources of the nodes while maintaining Quality of service. Routing protocols try to find the shortest path to the destination. Depending on how and when the routes are discovered, the protocols are classified as proactive and reactive routing protocols. This paper investigates the performance of a reactive routing protocol, Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and a proactive routing protocol Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) under different speed with nodes converging and diverging.
 Index Terms - Mobile Ad-Hoc Network, Routing Protocol, AODV, OLSR and Performance
Evaluating Degree of Hop in Wireless Sensor Networks under Geographical Routing Protocol
Pages: 74-77 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (348 K)
S. Ramakrishna Sai, V. CH. Pavan Kumar Patnaik and M.V.H. Bhaskara Murthy
Electronics and Communication Engineering, Sri Vaishnavi College of Engg., Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract -
A Wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of many low-cost, low-power, and multifunctional wireless sensor nodes, with sensing, wireless communications and computation capabilities. These nodes communicate over short distance via a wireless medium and create common tasks. Traditional routing protocols have several shortcomings when applied to WSNs mainly due to issues involving network energy constraints. Geographic routing is a type of stateless routing, where it is not necessary for a node to perform maintenance functions for topological information beyond the one-hop neighborhood. So geographic routing is highly feasible for large-scale networks than topological routing that need network-wide control message dissemination. In this paper it is proposed to investigate performance of wireless sensor network having 3 degrees of hops with different transmission powers. The goal is to balance power within WSN to save energy on the nodes. This is very important in WSN as they typically use battery which may not be possible to replace in many cases.
 Index Terms - Wireless Sensor Network, Geographical Routing Protocol, Routing and Energy Saving
Textural Features of Palm Print
Pages: 78-81 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (446 K)
Mrs. Kasturika B. Ray and Mrs. Rachita Misra
Institute of Technical Education & Research, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, India
Department of IT, CV Raman College of Engineering, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India

Abstract -
Image processing is widely used in many applications like medical imaging, industrial manufacturing, entertainment and security system. The size of image is very large. Biometrics which use of human physiological characteristics for identifying an individual, now a widespread method of identification and authentication, uses several image processing techniques. Biometric computing offers an effective approach to identify personal identity by using individual’s unique, reliable and stable behavioural characteristics. Biometric identification is a technology which describes the general procedure for identification and verification using feature extraction, storage and matching from the digitized image of biometric characters such as Finger Print, Face, Iris or Palm Print. In this paper we present a comparative study and analysis of some palm print feature extraction and identification methods.
 Index Terms - Biometric Computing, Palm Print Classification, Invariant Feature Extraction, Palm Print Alignment, Point Matching and Identify Verification
Classification of Dataset Using Clustering Technique
Pages: 82-85 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (292 K)
Satyanarayan Misra, Prof. Sanjay Singh and Pradeep Kumar Tiwari
JJT University Jaipur, India
AMITY University Campus, Lucknow, India
DAMS Kanpur, India

Abstract -
In this paper we establish a different implementation level clustering technique which provides a new dimension for classification of datasets. The training set and the testing set of data are classified according to the separate kind of algorithms discussed here. The analysis of the performance will show a clear edge over the other existing technique used for data classification. The future research issues which need to be resolved and investigated further are given with new trends and ideas.
 Index Terms - Pattern Recognition, Feature Extraction, Neighborhood Technique, Data Clustering and Data Classification
Speech Recognition and Synthesis Tool: Assistive Technology for Physically Disabled Persons
Pages: 86-91 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (353 K)
Reena Sharma and Geetanjali Wasson
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Bhaddal Institutes, India

Abstract -
In this paper, attempt has been made to develop a Speech Recognition and Synthesis Tool (SRST) as assistive technology to provide a solution for communication between two physically disabled persons; blind and deaf. An off-line chat room has made where two physically challenged persons can communicate to each other in US English accent via USB Serial Adaptor. SRST is designed in Microsoft.NET 3.5 framework using C# Programming in Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Environment. Microsoft Windows Speech Application Programming Interface (SAPI) 5.3 and, system speech recognition and system speech synthesis namespaces are used for speech to text conversion and vice-versa. The blind and deaf students trained on the tool and window speech recognition system inbuilt in windows vista. Then this communication tool is implemented in real setting for the physically challenged persons. It has been observed that they communicated to each other effectively only in noise free environment and blind students taken more time than deaf students to familiar with tool commands and speech recognition commands.
 Index Terms - Assistive Technology, C# Programming Microsoft SAPI, Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis Classification
QoS of VoIP over WiMAX Access Networks
Pages: 92-98 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (390 K)
S. Alshomrani, S. Qamar, S. Jan, I. Khan and I. A. Shah
Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
University of Engineering and Technology, Mardan Campus, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Abstract -
Voice over Internet Protocol is a rapid growing technology which enables the transport of voice data over Internet Protocol based networks. Voice over Internet Protocol has become a possible alternative to Public Switched Telephone Network due to its capabilities to transport voice data in the form of digital Internet Protocol packets over the TCP/IP based Internet. In parallel, a remarkable increase is happening in the deployment of IEEE 802.16 standard based WiMAX networks. This research paper investigates the performance of VoIP traffic over WiMAX networks. The impact of various voice codec schemes and statistical distribution for VoIP over WiMAX has been investigated in detail. Through various simulation experiments under realistic networking scenarios, this study provides an insight into the VoIP performance in the WIMAX networks. Parameters that indicate the Quality of Service such as delay, jitter, packet loss and MOS are analyzed in these scenarios. The simulations results indicate that better choice of voice codecs and statistical distribution have significant impact on VoIP performance in the WiMAX networks.
 Index Terms - VoIP, WiMAX, ertPS and Video Codecs
Mapping Parallel English-Hindi Sentences Using English-Hindi Dictionary
Pages: 99-102 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (420 K)
Shweta Dubey and Vivek Dubey
CSE Department, Shri Shankaracharya Technical Campus, Bhilai (C.G), India

Abstract -
In this paper, we present a methodology for one to one (1:1) mapping of parallel English-Hindi parallel sentences. This methodology is based on the development of parallel English-Hindi word dictionary after syntactically and semantically analysis of the English-Hindi source text. We are using this methodology for the English and Hindi sentences, but the methodology can also be used for other languages. As big parallel corpus of English-Hindi pair language is not usually available, we design and develop two strategies to overcome this problem: normalization of tagged English sentences and Hindi sentences, on the one hand; mapping English-Hindi sentence using parallel English-Hindi word dictionary, on the other. Fortunately, this task, word alignment is well known, and some aligning algorithms are freely available.
 Index Terms - VoIPNormalization, Tagging, Local Word Grouping, Word Mapping, Part of Speech Tagging (POST) and Word Dictionary
ICA Based Face Authentication System
Pages: 103-107 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (1000 K)
Tarun Dhar Diwan, Shikha Mishra and Rachna Verma
Faculty of Engineering, Dr. C.V.Raman University, Bilaspur, India
CSVT University, Bhilai, India

Abstract -
In this research, we show how the promising Independent Component Analysis (ICA) technique extracts features that are more closely related to our intuition of discriminate information, and that improve the success rate compared to an equivalent system using PCA. The aim of the research is to implement ICA based face authentication system by extracting the invariant features of a face.
 Index Terms - ICA, PCA, False Rejection Rate, Nongaussian, Face Authentication and Illumination