Volume 6, Issue 10, November 2015

Hybrid Protection Scheme for Elastic Optical Networks with Regenerator and Efficient Energy Consideration
Pages: 1-7 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (443K)
N. Georges Anoh, Joël Christian Adépo, Michel Babri and BOKO Aka
Université Nangui Abrogoua, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire
INPHB, LARIT Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract -
The evolution of communication technology promotes the growth of Internet traffic with different QoS requirements in optical transport networks. With this evolution, several challenges must be taken up namely the need to increase network capacity, minimize energy consumption and that of ensuring the resilience of the network face increasing traffic connectivity failure. To take up these challenges, we proposed a hybrid protection approach based adaptive routing introducing the regenerator activation while considering energy consumption. In our study, we considered two types of connections (critical and non-critical). Critical connections require dedicated end-to-end protection unlike non-critical applications whose backup resources are shared between them. The simulation results show that activation of the regenerators has a significant impact on energy consumption of the network. However, it significantly reduces the blocking probability in the network.
 Index Terms - Hybrid Protection, Shared, Dedicated, Critical Connection, Non-Critical, Power Consumption and Regenerator
Fast Vehicle Detection and Counting Using Background Subtraction Technique and Prewitt Edge Detection
Pages: 8-12 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (541K)
Reza Javadzadeh, Ehsan Banihashemi and Javad Hamidzadeh
Department of Computer Science, Ferdows Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ferdows, Iran
Faculty of Computer Engineering and Information Technology, Sadjad University of Technology, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract -
Fast vehicle detection is an important task for the purpose of detecting, counting and tracking the vehicles on the highways. In our method, we propose a new, fast way to identify the vehicles on the highways based on the image processing techniques, such as background subtraction, Prewitt filter and various morphological operations. First, we used adaptive background subtraction technique to extract the moving objects of the current frame, next we used morphological operations to remove the unrelated objects to the vehicles. Experimental results show the high accuracy of the proposed method along with low time complexity.
 Index Terms - Background Subtraction, Automatic Vehicle Detection, Prewitt Filter and Thresholding
Performance Evaluation and Comparison of EQM with RED, SFQ, and REM, TCP Congestion Control Algorithms Using NS-2
Pages: 13-19 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (528K)
Nauman, A., and Arshad, M. J.,
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract -
Network congestion deteriorates the quality of service in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) network model. A number of congestion control algorithms have been proposed to achieve the high link utilization with minimum queue latency. Queue management is a very active research area in real time networking traffic so as to meet the demands of real time internet based applications. A new AQM algorithm called Effective Queue Management (EQM) strategy has recently been proposed to manage the queue proactively. This queue management scheme proposes solution to overcome all the drawbacks experienced in all the earlier existing active queue management (AQM) schemes but effectiveness of this proposed scheme has not yet been analyzed in terms of average queue length, throughput, packet loss, utilization and delay with the variations in network load. The overall goal of this paper is to focus on analyzing the effectiveness of EQM and comparing its performance with the earlier existing AQM schemes Random Early Detection (RED), Stochastic Fair Queuing (SFQ), and Random Exponential Marking (REM), in terms of average queue length, throughput, utilization, packet loss and delay. Performance parameters (queue length, throughput, utilization, loss, delay) for the EQM, RED, SFQ and REM algorithms have measured with different bandwidths. The effectiveness of all these mechanisms is analyzed by using simulations in Network Simulator (NS-2). Each of the algorithms EQM, RED, SFQ and REM is categorized on the basis of simulation results using performance parameters.
 Index Terms - AQM, Active Queue Management, Effective Queue Management, EQM, Random Early Detection, RED, Stochastic Fair Queuing, SFQ, Random Exponential Marking and REM
E-Learning Design, Learner Support and Development Project in the Nigeria Educational System
Pages: 20-25 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (572K)
Okiki O. Christopher and Adewumi O. Olurotimi
University of Lagos Library, University of Lagos, Nigeria
Distance Learning Institute, University of Lagos, Nigeria

Abstract -
Electronic learning (e-learning) system for Nigeria universities has assumed important place in most countries. The quality assurance agency for university education in Nigeria (National Universities Commission – NUC) is unwavering in the quest to facilitate capacity building activities so as to ensure that academic staff involved in the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) education programs are fully equipped with the requisite Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy skills and competences for quality service delivery via the ODL mode. The Nigerian University System has one single-mode open and distance learning University as well as six “dual-mode” Universities (conventional universities with distance learning Centers / Institutes). Before now, the Nigerian distance learning education has been more or less part-time studies as it lacks the qualities of an Open and Distance Learning system. There was no learning management system in place, instructional materials were not structured and the teachers were more or less digital immigrants. A lot of challenges were encountered. This ranges from resistance to change, poor ICT infrastructure and concern about intellectual property rights and shared rights between faculties and institutions. As the national consultants, we have increased digital literacy sporadically by following a few ideas with the best chance of success. We have developed processes that leverage best practices from both the instructional design and software development areas. Through a mixture of instructional media, learners and educators can experience synchronous and asynchronous interactions. The e-learning projects embarked on were a software project combined with a performance enhancement (‘training’) project as well as instructional design for course development. In the bid to effectively service the ODL Institutions in Nigeria, we determined the actual training need of each distance learning institutions. We have developed e-teaching capacity building workshop as well as collaborative development of distance learning courses, designing of online courses to meet the needs of a diverse student population and the use of synchronous and asynchronous mode of distance learning tools. To begin the implementation of the research effort, a series of courses were developed and reviewed among the teaching staff (course experts) of the ODL Institutions. The Learning Management System provided an accessible, innovative, online learning, information resources and facilitation environment for both students and teaching staff. It provided new routes of access to better skills and qualifications.
 Index Terms - Electronic Learning System, Learning Support, Open Distance Learning and Nigeria
Techniques to Optimize the Security and QoS in Cloud Computing
Pages: 26-31 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (428K)
Anum Farooq, M. Junaid Arshad and Mohesa Aemon
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, UET, Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract -
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing resources over the Internet. Cloud services allow individuals and businesses to use software and hardware that are managed by third parties at remote locations. Sometime cloud applications and services experience quite different behavior than expected. Cloud Computing is the latest technology which is used to solve commercial as well as IT management problems. Cloud computing refers to the delivery of computing resources over the Internet. Instead we keep data on our own hard drive or updating applications for our needs, we use a service over the Internet, at some other location, to store our information or use its applications .There are a lot of issues that may arise in this recent technology that may act as hurdle for large organizations to switch their system on to the cloud. In new infrastructure of cloud computing, the techniques like encryption and Strong Secure Shell are deployed to ensure the authenticity of users through ‘logs’. The vendors use these logs to view and to analyze the data. This document is helpful for understanding the major problems that comes in the way of cloud vendors. There is a need to identify all the concerned issues and problems regarding the technology before deploy it for any organization or business. To achieve a better deployment one should be concerned for the critical issues regarding cloud computing.
 Index Terms - Cloud Computing, Issues, Solutions, QoS, and Optimization Techniques