Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2011

Software Testing of GPS Data Processing
Pages: 1-4 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (298 K)
Nagi Zomrawi Mohammed and Munzir Bader Eldin
Department of Surveying Engineering, Sudan University of Science & Technology (SUST), Sudan

Abstract —
There are different softwares for GPS data processing. Every manufactures of GPS receivers produce their own software for processing the observed field data in order to obtain adjusted results. In most cases these softwares are protected or secured so it cannot be used to process data of other instrument. This research work is oriented to try to get rid of these softwares recommended by GPS receivers manufactures. In this research, the data, which was collected using Leica GPS system 500, were processed using three different softwares: SKI Pro, Trimble Geomatics office (TGO) and Topcon link. The work comprises data entry, adjustment, and processing to produce the required adjusted coordinates. From this research work it can be concluded with that, the observed GPS data can be successfully processed utilizing different software's rather than that recommended by the company.
 Index Terms GPS, Software, Testing and Processing
Optical Add Drop Multiplexers with UW-DWDM Technique in Metro Optical Access Communication Networks
Pages: 5-13 (9) | [Full Text] PDF (694 K)
Abd El–Naser A. Mohammed, Mohammed M. E. EL-Halawany, Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, and Mohamoud M. A. Eid
Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Department Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menouf 32951, Menoufia University, Egypt

Abstract —
In the present paper, optical add drop multiplexers (OADMs) with ultra wide dense wavelength division (UW-DWDM) multiplexing technique in metro optical communication networks have been modeled and parametrically investigated over wide range of the affecting parameters. Moreover, we have analyzed the flexible configuration changes as well as higher capacity and maximum possible transmission bit rates. Also in the same way, we have developed OADMs, which are capable of dealing with one to several channels arbitrarily selected. Finally, the performance characteristics of the OADMs are taken as the major interest in optical access ring networks to handle maximum transmission bit rates for the maximum supported users.
 Index Terms Access Optical Networks, OADMs, Optical Amplifier (OA), SMF, UW-DWDM and Metro Access Network
ANPRSRE: Automatic Number Plate Recognition System for Real-time Environments
Pages: 14-19 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (765 K)
M.J. Qureshi, K.H. Asif and Khalid Bashir
Department of Computer Science & Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan
School of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of Western Australia

Abstract —
The purpose of ANPRSRE was to build a real time application which recognizes license plates from cars at a gate, for example at the entrance of a parking area or at the entrance of an office gate. ANPRSRE system, based on regular PC with video camera, catches video frames which include a visible car license no. plate and processes them. Once a license no. plate is detected, its digits are recognized, displayed on the GUI monitor and then checked against a database. The focus is on the design of algorithms used for extracting the license plate from a single image, isolating the characters of the plate and identifying the individual characters. There have been similar past project. The purpose of ANPRSRE project was first and foremost to improve the accuracy of the program, and whenever possible its time-complexity. This project have good accuracy according to the tests we made on the set of images, recorded videos and were successful and it finds out yellow license no. plates from an video/image and recognize its number.
 Index Terms Real-time, Image Processing, Time-complexity and Identification
Low Performance Characteristics of Optical Laser Diode Sources Based on NRZ Coding Formats Under Thermal Irradiated Environments
Pages: 20-30 (11) | [Full Text] PDF (1142 K)
Abd El-Naser A. Mohamed, Abd El-Fattah A. Saad, Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed and Hazem M. El-Hageen
Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering Department, Faculty Electronic Engineering, Menouf, 32951, Egypt
Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Naser City, Cairo, Egypt

Abstract —
The Vertical Cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) is considered one of the most important devices for optical interconnects and local area networks (LANs), enabling ultra parallel information transmission in lightwave and computer systems. As well as active optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, laser diodes (LDs), and photodiodes were evaluated for degradation under gamma and neutron irradiation. Total dose values and neutron fluences were chosen in such a way that we get estimates of the behaviour especially in space environments and nuclear engineering. The devices are designed for wavelengths from visible region to infrared region. LDs show a reduction of light output power and also a shift of threshold current after irradiation. This paper has proposed the study of the transmission bit rates and products of optical laser diode sources such as VCSEL under thermal irradiated environments. We have taken into account the performance characteristics of these devices such as the harmonic response transfer function, the resonance frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, damping frequency and the pulse rise time. These diodes affect the transmitted bit-rate in high-speed advanced optical communication systems. The effects of both ambient temperature, the injected current, power, and the dose of irradiation are deeply investigated. The pulse rise time and the resonance frequency as well as the transmitted signal bandwidth, transmitted bit rates and products based on Non return to zero (NRZ) coding formats are the major criterions of the device speed.
 Index Terms Optoelectronic Devices, VCSELs, Radiation Effects, Gamma Irradiation, Threshold Current and Semiconductor Lasers
Wireless Sensor Networks: A Study on Congestion Routing Algorithms
Pages: 31-38 (8) | [Full Text] PDF (718 K)
K. Hanumantha Rao, G. Srinivas, Ankam Damodhar and M. Vikas Krishna
Sri Indu College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India

Abstract —
Data’s generated in Wireless Sensor Networks may not all alike, some data’s are more important than other data’s and they may have different delivery requirements. If congestion occurs in the Wireless Network, some or more important data’s may be dropped. But in our project we handle this problem by addressing differentiated delivery requirements. We propose a class of algorithms that enforce differentiated routing based on the congested areas of a network and data priority. The basic protocol, called Congestion-Aware Routing (CAR), discovers the congested zone of the network that exists between high-priority data sources and the data sink and, using simple forwarding rules, dedicates this portion of the network to forwarding primarily high-priority traffic. Since CAR requires some overhead for establishing the high-priority routing zone, it is unsuitable for highly mobile data sources. To accommodate these, we define MAC-Enhanced CAR (MCAR), which includes MAC-layer enhancements and a protocol for forming high-priority paths on the fly for each burst of data. MCAR effectively handles the mobility of high-priority data sources, at the expense of degrading the performance of low-priority traffic.
 Index Terms Routing, Congestion and Wireless Sensor Networks
Ultra Wide Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) Devices for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Optical Communication Systems
Pages: 39-45 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (738 K)
Mohamed A. Metawe'e
Higher Institute of Engineering and Technology in El-Arish, Egypt

Abstract —
To meet the exploding demand for Internet and broad-band services, dense wavelength-division-multiplexing systems have been extended from long-haul transmission systems to metropolitan and access area networks. In such systems, compact and conventional arrayed-waveguide grating multi/demultiplexers are required to reduce the cost of the systems. The evolution of broadband services will depend on the widespread deployment of optical communication systems. The deployment of such systems will in turn, help drive increased demand for additional capacity. In this world, service providers will have a growing need to be able to flexibly adjust capacity to accommodate uncertain and growing demand. This paper has proposed ultra wide AWG devices for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical communication systems that deeply studied over wide range of affecting parameters. Two multiplexing methods are applied, space division multiplexing (SDM) and DWDM, where 300 to 600 transmitted channels are processed to handle the product of transmission bit rate for planar waveguide cables of multi links using soliton transmission technique and maximum time division multiplexing (MTDM).
 Index Terms Gratings, Optical Planar Waveguides, Integrated Optics, Waveguide Arrays and DWDM