Volume 2, Issue 6, September 2011

A Comprehensive Study of Adverse Effect of Malicious Attacks on End-to-End Delay in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks Carrying Packet Telephony
Pages: 1-4 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (273 K)
Sandeep Maan and Dr. P.K. Suri
Department of Computer Science and Applications, Kurukshetra University, Kuruskhetra, India
Govt. P.G. College, Sec-14, Gurgaon-India

Abstract —
Like any other wireless network, mobile ad-hoc networks are highly vulnerable to security threats coming from various intruders. Attacks launched by nodes that are part of the network, have attracted attention of research fraternity. A malicious node may work in a manner to increase the transfer delay and hence disrupt the working of network. Successful implementation of packet telephony is subject to constraints imposed by various QoS parameters including end-to-end delay. In this work authors have tried to gauze the adverse effect on end-to-end delay caused by the presence of various nodes with malicious intention in the network.
 Index Terms Mobile Ad-hoc Networks, End-to-End Delay, Packet Telephony, Quality-of-Service, Voice over Internet Protocol, Malicious Nodes and Denial of Service Attacks
Ontology Evolution Methodology for Change Management
Pages: 5-7 (3) | [Full Text] PDF (210 K)
Khadim H. Asif, Syed Muhammad Ahsan and M. Junaid Arshad
Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore-Pakistan

Abstract —
So far various approaches and frameworks have been proposed to address the problem of ontology evolution management. They use different methods and techniques to tackle its various aspects like change management, inconsistency administration and incorporation of temporal information. Despite all the efforts made in this direction, the problem of ontology evolution management still needs to be resolved. Having identified the limitations and drawbacks associated the current existing approaches, we have proposed an approach which is based on mathematical model of ontology and makes use of an adjacency matrix to handle the changes in the concepts as well as in the relationships among the concepts of ontology.
 Index Terms Ontology, Management, Approaches, Evolution and Matrix
Data Mining Machine Learning Techniques – A Study on Abnormal Anomaly Detection System
Pages: 8-14 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (322 K)
M. Sathya Narayana, B. V. V. S. Prasad, A. Srividhya and K. Pandu Ranga Reddy
Visvesvaraya College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India
SV College of Engineering and Technology, India
Nishitha College of Engineering and Technology, India

Abstract —
An important research problem in knowledge discovery and data mining is to identify abnormal instances. Finding anomalies in data has important applications in domains such as fraud detection and homeland security. While there are several existing methods to identify anomalies in numerical datasets, there has been little work aimed at discovering abnormal instances in large and complex relational networks whose nodes are richly connected with many different types of links. To address this problem we designed a novel, unsupervised, domain independent framework that utilizes the information provided by different types of links to identify abnormal nodes. Our approach measures the dependencies between nodes and paths in the network to capture what we call “semantic profiles” of nodes, and then applies a distance-based outlier detection method to find abnormal nodes that are significantly different from their closest neighbors. To facilitate validation, we designed a novel explanation mechanism that can generate meaningful and human-understandable explanations for abnormal nodes discovered by our system. Such explanations not only facilitate the verification and screening out of false positives, but also provide directions for further investigation in determining the abnormal instances. The explanation system uses a classification-based approach to summarize the characteristic features of a node together with a path to sentence generator to describe these features in natural language.
 Index Terms Data Mining, Machine Learning, Intrusion, Anomaly and Abnormal Instance
Using Swarm Intelligence to Optimize Caching Techniques for Ad Hoc Network
Pages: 15-19 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (348 K)
Appavoo Paramasiven
Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius

Abstract —
Caching has been used to improve the performance of network-dependent computer system. A number of cache replacement schemes along with invalidation reports schemes have been devised for MANETs. Apart from improving the response time of request in MANET, caching also increases the network lifetime. In this paper, it is shown how the ant colony optimization is applied to caching system so as to further improve the performance and lifetime of the ad hoc network.
 Index Terms Ad Hoc, Network, Cache, Swarm Intelligence, Ant Colony Optimization and Geocasting
Comparison of AODV, DSR and TCRP Protocols for Routing Algorithms in WSNs for IEEE 802.15.4 Standard Based Devices
Pages: 20-26 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (934 K)
Arvind Kumar and Chanpreet Singh
University Institute of Engineering & Technology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

Abstract —
IEEE 802.15.4 is the prevailing standard for low-data-rate wireless personal area networks. The IEEE 802.15.4 protocol has recently been adopted as a communication standard for low data rate, low power consumption and low cost Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This protocol is quite flexible for a wide range of applications by adequately tuning its parameters. This feature is quite attractive for time-sensitive WSN applications. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard specifies the physical layer and MAC sub-layer for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs). The ZigBee standard is closely associated with the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol and specifies the network (including security services) and application (including objects and profiles) layers. In IEEE 802.15.4 standard, Packet monitoring statistics along with optimal route selection between nodes is the research topic of major concern from the very first day of its implementation. In this paper, we first try to analyze the existing reactive (on-demand) routing protocols for mesh networking based on random waypoint mobility model and then try to propose new approach for this model.
 Index Terms IEEE 802.15.4 Standard, ZigBee, Wireless Sensor Networks, Packet Loss and Routing Algorithms
Spatio-Temporal Database Using Fuzzy Clustering
Pages: 27-30 (4) | [Full Text] PDF (248 K)
K. Kamaraj and Dr. C. Chandrasekar
SSM College of Engineering, Komarapalayam Namakkal (DT), Tamil Nadu, India
Department of Computer Science, Periyar University, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India

Abstract —
Given a large spatio-temporal data of events, where each event consists of the following fields. Event-Id, time, location, event type. A wide range of database applications manage time-varying data. In contrast, existing database technology provides little support for managing such data. The research area of temporal databases aims to change this state of affairs by characterizing the semantics of temporal data and providing expressive and efficient ways to model, store, and query temporal data Temporal database management is a vibrant field of research. This paper illustrates the graphical representation of the temporal database manipulations in terms of visual query. It also explains the semantics, Patterns and Visual Query Operators and using fuzzy clustering. The fuzzy approaches also extract additional values hidden information in comparison with the usual crisp approaches. In this way queries based on linguistic expressions our clients side are supported and are accessing relational database in the same way as the classical SQL.
 Index Terms Query Operators, Temporal Databases, Fuzzy Sets, Membership, Clustering and C-Means Algorithm
Electrooptic Polymer Modulators Performance Improvement with Pulse Code Modulation Scheme in Modern Optical Communication Networks
Pages: 31-40 (10) | [Full Text] PDF (408 K)
Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed, Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed, Sakr A. S. Hanafy and Amira I. M. Bendary
Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menouf 32951, Menoufia University, Egypt

Abstract —
In the field of photonic modulation and sensing, the primary goal of the device engineer is to achieve the lowest possible switching power (or largest possible sensitivity), with the fastest switching speed, whilst maximizing the optical throughput of the device. To break through the current frequency limitations, adoption of new electrooptic materials and devices is necessary. Electrooptic polymers have high electrooptic activity and consistent frequency response up to at least 200 GHz. Additionally, electrooptic (EO) polymers can be processed to facilitate integration with other materials such as semiconductor light sources and detectors, low voltage drivers, and inorganic and polymeric waveguides. These EO polymer properties, either alone or in combination, lead to optical components or integrated optical devices that can generate, process, and detect optical signals at high frequency with high transmission data rates and broad signal bandwidth. This paper has proposed high speed of polymer electrooptic modulator devices with using pulse code modulation scheme to handle transmitted signal bandwidth, transmission bit rate, and product over wide range of the affecting parameters.
 Index Terms Electrooptic (EO) Polymer, Optical Waveguide, Optical Polymers, Integrated Optics and Electrooptic Modulation
Performance Evaluation and Improving Bandwidth Utilization of AODV Protocol by Finding Hidden Terminals in Wireless Networks
Pages: 41-45 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (257 K)
Teena Arora, Parminder Singh and Sandeep Singh Kang
Department of IT, C.E.C. Landran, Mohali, India
Department of CSE, C.E.C. Landran, India

Abstract —
Adhoc on demand distance vector routing protocol is designed for use in Ad hoc mobile networks. AODV is an on- demand distance vector routing protocol that determined a route to a destination only when a node wants to send a packet to that destination. This paper focuses to improvement of AODV protocol in wireless networks by finding the hidden terminals in the mobile network and improved the bandwidth utilization by using Fair share algorithm. The bandwidth is the combination of width and range of frequency and due to this we have to also solve the hidden terminal problem. These hidden terminals degrade the performance of Adhoc networks for sharing resources on the same bandwidth. The fair share algorithm had been used and run under the network simulator (NS2). In this we improved the performance of Ad Hoc networks and calculated the congestion level during the experimentation. With the removal of collision and congestion we improved the bandwidth and focuses to implement the method of RTS/CTS. The further use of RTS/CTS methods to finding the hidden terminals and update the table so that the chance of collision has been less. The simulated scenario of Ad Hoc networks performed over 802.11 networks by using simulator NS2.
 Index Terms AODV, Bandwidth, FA algorithm, RTS and CTS
Analysis and Study of Denial of Service Attacks in Wireless Mobile Jammers
Pages: 46-52 (7) | [Full Text] PDF (378 K)
S.M.K. Chaitanya, P. Naga Raju, Y.N.V.L. Ayyappa and Vundavalli Ravindra
Nova College of Engineering & Technology JangaReddy Gudem, West Godavari, India

Abstract —
Nature of the medium in wireless networks makes it easy for an adversary to launch a Wireless Denial of Service (WDoS) attack. Recent studies, demonstrate that such attacks can be very easily accomplished using off-the shelf equipment. To give a simple example, a malicious node can continually transmit a radio signal in order to block any legitimate access to the medium and/or interfere with reception act is called jamming and the malicious nodes are referred to as jammers. Jamming techniques vary from simple ones based on the continual transmission of interference signals, to more sophisticated attacks that aim at exploiting vulnerabilities of the particular protocol used. In our article, we mention a detailed up-to-date discussion on the jamming attacks recorded in the literature. We also describe various techniques proposed for intrusion detecting in the presence of jammers. Finally, we survey numerous mechanisms which attempt to protect the network from jamming attacks. We final discuss better security for intrusion detection in wireless mobile jammer which is efficient to existing one.
 Index Terms Wireless Networks, Intrusion, Jammers and Security
Spatial Mining Process – Study on Implementation of Instance in Database Engine
Pages: 53-58 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (397 K)
Beeram Sathyanarayana, Paleti Lakshmi Kanth and M. Srikanth
Kallam Haranadha Reddy Institute of Technology, India
Vignan’s Lara Institute of Technology and Science, Vadlamudi, Guntur, India
Department of Computer Science and Engineering in RVR&JC College of Engineering, India

Abstract —
In this article presenting the environment of spatial data mining and classifications of spatial databases to improve the quality in spatial objects that are spatial clustering, classification, and association. Framework for spatial data mining formulate the visibility nearest neighbor graphs, relations and objects differing in how to prune instances during the search process. We further propose the implementation of spatial database engine using the eleven spatial instances, here we describes only seven which finds the type of instance in different geometry or geography analysis. To design the spatial database engine requires the data types and measurements are analyzed, our work shows not only for mining process but also to implement the spatial objects in SQL specification version 1.1.0.
 Index Terms Spatial Classifications, Outlier, Data Types and Measurements
Multi-Factor User Authentication in Wireless Sensor Networks
Pages: 59-63 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (279 K)
T. Sarika and Shaik Shah Nawaz
Aurora’s Engineering College, Bhongir, A.P., India

Abstract —
Wireless Sensor networks are a new wireless networking paradigm for the mobile hosts. Wireless Sensor networks are an autonomous system that is made up of collaborative mobile nodes. Wireless Sensor networks can be dynamically setup without relying on any pre-existing infrastructure. Implementing the public key user authentication is a challenging issue in Wireless Sensor networks due to its salient nature of the network. The user authentication is of three steps. In the first step Registration of user will be happened, in the second step user smart card will be validated with symmetric key and using the key the authentication of the user will be done as a third phase.
 Index Terms Authentication, Sensor Networks, Security and Hash Function
High Transmission Data Rate of Plastic Optical Fibers over Silica Optical Fibers Based Optical Links for Short Transmission Ranges
Pages: 64-75 (12) | [Full Text] PDF (821 K)
Abd El–Naser A. Mohamed, Hamdy A. Sharshar, Ahmed Nabih Zaki Rashed*, and Sakr A. S. Hanafy
Electronics and Electrical Communications Engineering Department Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menouf 32951, Menoufia University, Egypt

Abstract —
This paper has proposed two different fiber structures for dispersion management are investigated, where two types of fabrication material link of single mode fiber made of pure silica and plastic optical fibers are suggested, where one successive segment of single mode fiber made of silica fibers is suggested to be employed periodically in the short transmission systems namely different relative refractive index differences (n). As well as we have presented the total transmission characteristics of both materials based optical links under the thermal effect of to be processed to handle both transmission lengths and bit rates per channel for cables of multi links over wide range of the affecting parameters. Within maximum time division multiplexing (MTDM) transmission technique, we have estimated both the transmission bit rate and capacity distance product per channels for both materials based optical links under study. The bit rates are studied within thermal and dispersion sensitivity effects of the refractive-index of the materials based optical links are taken into account to present the effects on the performance of optical fiber cable links. Dispersion characteristics and dispersion management are deeply studied where two types of optical fiber cable link materials are used. A new novel technique of chromatic dispersion management in optical single mode fiber is introduced to facilitate the design of the highest and the best transmission performance of bit rates in advanced local area optical communication networks.
 Index Terms Single Mode Fibers (SMFs), Dispersion Management, High Data Rate, Optical Link Design and Thermal Effects
Providing Internet Connectivity and QOS of Reactive and Proactive Protocols Using Gateway Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Pages: 76-80 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (269 K)
Amandeep Kaur Saggu, Parminder Singh and Sandeep Singh Kang
Department of CSE, C.E.C. Landran, Mohali, India

Abstract —
Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of nodes which are connected by wireless links. MANET is a self configuring network in which nodes are free to move. This paper used two ADHOC routing protocols i.e. reactive and proactive Protocols. In this paper, we have use only two categories Ad Hoc routing protocols AODV (Ad Hoc on demand routing protocol) that act as reactive protocol and DSDV (Destination sequenced Distance Vector) act as a proactive protocol. Using AODV, The routes are created only when source wants to send data to destination. AODV builds and maintains routes that are needed to reduce overheads. A mobile node requests a route only when it needs one. Each node does not need periodic route table update. Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector Routing is a table-driven routing scheme for ad hoc mobile networks based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm. This algorithm is used to solve the Routing Loop problem. DSDV requires a regular update of its routing tables. Both Protocols use Gateways for connectivity between MANET node and internet. The Gateway had been selected for communicated with source node and destination node. The TCP Reno modified protocol of TCP in wireless networks configured on both ends for providing end to end (E2E) connectivity. The Interface Queue Occupancy Algorithm and Gateway Selection Algorithm had been used for selecting a particular gateway and run under the Network simulator (NS2). The purpose of gateway used in this paper for providing internet connectivity. The internet connection provides communication between local to remote area and QOS (Quality of Service) means the data used in the simulated scenario sent or not and measures from the End to End performance. The performance metrics has been calculating by various scripts namely Perl and Python scripts to measure the delay variance. This Paper presents the results of throughput of both AODV and DSDV protocols and shows that AODV performs well over DSDV protocol when the nodes communication over internet. The simulation performed over 502.11 networks and supports MANET.
 Index Terms AODV, DSDV, MANET, Throughput and Delay
An Efficient Approach for Medical Image Segmentation Based on Truncated Skew Gaussian Mixture Model Using K-Means Algorithm
Pages: 81-88 (8) | [Full Text] PDF (382 K)
Nagesh Vadaparthi, Srinivas Yarramalle, Suresh Varma Penumatsa and P.S.R. Murthy
Department of IT M.V.G.R. College of Engineering, Vizianagaram, India
Department of IT, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India
Aadikavi Nannaya University, Rajahmundry, India
Department of Mathematics, GITAM University, Visakhapatnam, India

Abstract —
In this paper, we proposed a novel approach for medical image segmentation process based on Finite Truncated Skew Gaussian mixture model. This approach considers various issues like skewness and asymmetric distributions with a finite range. We have utilized the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm in estimating the final model parameters and K-Means algorithm is utilized to estimate the number of mixture components along with the initial estimates for the EM algorithm. Segmentation of the image is performed based on the maximum likelihood estimation criteria. The performance of the approach is evaluated using segmentation quality metrics and the image quality metrics such as Average Distance, Maximum Difference, Image Fidelity, Mean Squared Error and Signal to Noise Ratio.
 Index Terms Finite Truncated Skew Gaussian Mixture Model, EM Algorithm, Segmentation Quality Metrics, Image Quality Metrics and Image Segmentation