Volume 3, Issue 9, September 2012

Handwritten Numeral Pattern Recognition Using Neural Network
Pages: 1-5 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (486K)
Rajeshwar Dass and Seema Asht
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering DCRUST, Murthal, Sonepat, India

Abstract -
Unconstrained handwritten numeral recognition has been a recent research area from last few decades. Handwritten numeral recognition approach is used in many fields like bank checks, car plates, ZIP code recognition, mail sorting, reading of commercial forms etc. This paper presents a technique to recognize handwritten numerals, taken from different pupils of different ages including male, female, right and left handed persons. 340 numerals were collected from 34 people for sample creation. Conjugate gradient descent back-propagation algorithm (CGD-BP) is used for training purpose. CGD-BP differs from primary back-propagation algorithm in the sense that conjugate algorithms perform line search along different directions which produce faster convergence than primary back-propagation. Percentage Recognition Accuracy (PRA) and Mean Square Error (MSE) have been taken to estimate the efficiency of neural network to recognize the numerals.
 Index Terms - Numeral Recognition, Conjugate Gradient Descent Back-Propagation Algorithm (CGD-BP), PRA and MSE
Identification of ST Segment ECG Signal Using Degestseg Wavelet Detection
Pages: 6-11 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (603K)
Dewa Gede Hari Wisana, Thomas Sri Widodo, Mochammad Sja'bani and Adhi Susanto
Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract -
Chest pain is an early sign of a person experiencing cardiac function abnormalities. Characteristic changes in ST segment elevation of ST segments which can be followed by T wave inversion is an early sign of heart dysfunction. In this paper, the ST segment of the electrocardiogram signal will be identified using new wavelet methods. Specific form of the electrocardiogram signal which gives angle, amplitude, phase and certain frequency is used as the basis of new wavelet DeGeSTSeg formation. The first thing to do is to detect the R peak of the electrocardiogram signal. Furthermore, the Q signal and the S signal is detected after the R signal is determined. ST segment was detected after all components of the signal are identified. The Basis of DeGeSTSeg is a new wavelet to detect the ST segment of the electrocardiogram signal. The originality of this study is applied to the electrocardiogram signal ST segment, with varying leads and was analyzed for each component Q, R, S and ST segment of the electrocardiogram signal. The results show the effectiveness of the utility DeGeSTSeg wavelet algorithm to detect the wave of the electrocardiogram STSegmen 6-lead electrocardiogram. With the sensitivity = 93% by using Receiver Operating characteristics of the community (ROC) curve.
 Index Terms - DeGeSTSeg, Electrordiogram, ST Segment and Wavelet Detection
An Efficient On-Demand Routing Protocol for MANETs using Dumpster- Shafer Belief Theory
Pages: 12-16 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (286K)
Shaista Naznee, Nidhi Sharma and Divya Rai
Department of Electronics and communication Engineering, MPCT, Gwalior, India

Abstract -
The vision of Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is wireless internet, where users can move anywhere anytime and still remaining connected with the rest of the world. Broadcasting is a fundamental operation in MANETs where a source node transmits a message that is to be disseminated to all the nodes in the network. Network wide broadcasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Network provides important control and route establishment functionality for a number of unicast and multicast protocols. Broadcasting in MANET poses more challenges than in wired networks due to node mobility and scarce system resources. Broadcasting is categorized into deterministic and probabilistic schemes. This paper proposed the probabilistic broadcasting protocol because of its adaptability in changing environment. Probabilistic broadcasting is best suited in terms of ad hoc network which is well known for its decentralized network nature. Probability, counter and distance based scheme under probabilistic scheme are discussed in this paper. Besides the basic probability scheme this paper also includes their recent advancements. Rebroadcast is one of the initial tasks for route discovery in reactive protocols. This paper proposed a methodology having better performance in terms of reachability, saved rebroadcast and average latency in rebroadcasting a route request message by using Dumpster- Shafer belief method. Simulation results are presented, which shows reachability, saved rebroadcast and average latency of the probabilistic broadcast protocols.
 Index Terms - Bayesian Approach, D-S Theory and Belief Theory
Maximality-based Step Graph for Safety-Petri Nets
Pages: 17-25 (9) | [Full Text] PDF (364K)
Adel Benamira and Djamel-Eddine Saidouni
Computer Science Dept., University of 08 Mai 45, 24000 Guelma and MISC Laboratory, Algeria
MISC Laboratory, Computer Science Dept., University of Mentouri, 25000 Constantine, Algeria

Abstract -
This paper proposes for safety-petri nets an algorithm for reducing on the fly a Maximality-based Labeled Transition Systems via partial order technique, in which made possible the consideration of the branches, therefore the reduction is important. The reduction graph (Maximality-based Step Graph) is a complete graph preserving the general properties (deadlock states and liveness).
 Index Terms - Formal Method, Petri Nets, Partial Order Semantics, Maximality Semantics and Maximality-Based Labeled Transitions Systems
Structure of Multimedia Documents : A Theoretical Approach
Pages: 26-31 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (156K)
R. N. Jugele and Dr. V. N. Chavan
Department of Computer Science, Science College, Congress Nagar, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
Department of Computer Science, S.K. Porwal College, Kamptee, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

Abstract -
The most frequently used computer application is the classical document handling system, electronic document and at this stage is the exact equivalent of a traditional paper document. It comprises information represented by text and graphical images structured in a desired fashion. Upcoming technological developments are expected to considerably advance the way in which users interact with their systems as well as the way they communicate among each other. Increase in processing and communications power allows integrating new media types, which capture the naturalness of information as experienced in everyday’s life. This feature will make these new media in a range of fields and a strong impact can be observed in document handling. Document handling will have to support new interaction schemes. The development gives the directions and considerably enhances the way documents are handled. Other current developments concerning documents are the move towards hypertext and hypermedia, although some of the presented techniques apply to these as well. The study is based on evaluating results of recent and ongoing research; including results which have already lead to new document standards. The goal design for study to provide a comprehensive overview of requirements and solution approaches, to show up issues requiring future research and the aspects are treated: information structuring, communication support and data management.
 Index Terms - Document, Structure, Logical Structure, Layout Structure, Physical Structure, Hyperoda, ODA, SGML, Hytime, MHEG and Multimedia Object
A Survey of Internet Worm Identification and Containment
Pages: 32-40 (9) | [Full Text] PDF (252K)
Zaidullah, Faheem Khan, Rahatullah, Irfanullah Khan and Gulrukh Khan
Gandahara University Peshawar, Pakistan
Agriculture University KPK Peshawar, Pakistan

Abstract -
This paper shows a Survey and Evaluation of Internet Worm Identification and containment techniques. First we pin point Worm features by their actions, and then organize Worm Identification algorithms relies on the factor used in the algorithms. Moreover, we observe and compare dissimilar Identification algorithms with reference to the Worm features by recognizing the kind of Worms, which can and cannot be recognized by these techniques. After recognizing the presence of Worms, the Next step is to contain them. This paper investigates the current techniques used to decrease or avoid the spreading of Worms. The Locations to impose Identification and containment, plus the scope of each and every of these techniques, are also explored in details. Finally, this paper points out the remaining challenges of Worm Identification and future Research directions.
 Index Terms - Internet, Survey, Techniques and Identification
Measurement of Noise by Sensor Technology for Automatic Level Crossings
Pages: 41-45 (5) | [Full Text] PDF (834K)
Surender Kumar and Y. K. Jain
Mewar University, Rajasthan, India
Bmiet, Sonepa, India

Abstract -
Recently the level crossing in India witnessed an accident rate which is increasing year by year. Indian railway network is the biggest in South Asia and most complicated of all. There are nearly 38,000 level crossings in India, out of which nearly 16500 are unmanned level crossings. This is a big challenge for Government to supervise and manning the level crossings. Presently government is also involved in deploying some warning devices at unmanned level crossings to prevent accidents. Hence there is a need to introduce some type of train actuated devices which can detect the presence of train at various speeds. This paper is presenting the train detection system “RND- Rolling Noise Detection” involved in train detection before the arrival of train. Rolling noise is main contributor of noise produced due to the running of train over the tracks. It is produced by the wheel rail interaction at the 0 m height. As it is a sound wave, it can travel in air as well as in solids. In air it is audible to us but in solids it travels as seismic waves. It is detectable in air and solids also, but the speed varies in both mediums. Sound waves travel faster in solids than air. Authors experimentally detected the rolling noise inside the rail tracks well before the arrival of train at measurement point and have tried to provide a solution for railways to make unmanned level crossings more safe and reliable by detecting train well before in time so that warning and barrier actuation can be done on time. This can be done by detecting rolling noise caused by train in advance to the arrival of train at some reference measurement point.
 Index Terms - Unmanned Level Crossing, Rolling Noises, Rolling Noise Detection (RND) and Piezo Sensor
Timed Refusals Graph for Non-Deterministic Timed Systems
Pages: 46-53 (8) | [Full Text] PDF (682K)
Ilham Kitouni, Hiba Hachichi, Kenza Bouaroudj and Djamel-Eddine Saidouni
MISC Laboratory, University Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Algeria

Abstract -
In this paper we are interested in refusals based model for validating timed systems. We propose a new refusals graph named timed refusals regions graphs (TRRGs). In this case specifications are modeled by durational actions timed automata (DATA*) based on maximality semantics which claim that actions have durations. This latter model is in one hand useful for modeling and validating reel aspects of systems. In the other hand, it is determinizable. In TRRG, refusals could be temporary or permanent. Permanent refusals are provoked by the non-determinism in the specifications. However, temporary refusals are the result of the fact that actions elapse in time. We propose a framework for generating timed refusals regions graph. This framework is implemented by a combination of Meta-modelling and Graph Grammars, to transform a DATA* structure into a TRRG. This permits the automatic generation of a visual modeling tool. Finally, we argue the use of TRRG in formal test of timed systems.
 Index Terms - Formal Testing Models, Refusal Graphs, Timed Systems, DATA* and Maximality Semantics
EVSM: Enhanced Video Streaming in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Pages: 54-59 (6) | [Full Text] PDF (304K)
Harsharndeep Singh, Meenu Dhiman and Harmunish Taneja
Department of Information Technology, M.M. University, Mullana, India

Abstract -
Real time video streaming over wireless networks is an increasingly important and attractive service to the mobile users. Video streaming involves a large amount of data to be transmitted in real time, while wireless channel conditions may vary from time to time. It is hard to guarantee a reliable transmission over the wireless network. Bandwidth, packet loss, packet delays, and outage times are the parameters specifying the transmissions. The quality of the video is affected negatively when network packets are lost. The mobile users may notice some sudden stop during the video playing. Some times the picture is momentarily frozen, followed by a jump from one scene to another. Wireless Ad-hoc Network is promising in solving many challenging real-world communication problems. Examples of these are: military field operation, emergency response system, and oil drilling and mining operation. However, the wide deployment of this type of network is still a challenging task. It is very difficult to manage quality of services for real time applications like video transmission over mobile nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks are not so resilient and reliable because of their dynamic topology due to the mobile nodes and impact of environmental circumstances. However, it provides multiple routes from the source to the destination, which gives extra redundancy for video and data transmission. The main objective of this paper is to enhance video streaming quality in mobile Ad-hoc networks. Simulation experiments are carried out using Network Simulator version 2 (NS-2.34) on Ad-hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing Protocol (AOMDV).
 Index Terms - Ad-Hoc Network, AOMDV, MANETs and NS-2
Identification and Removal of Black Hole Attack for Secure Communication in MANETs
Pages: 60-67 (8) | [Full Text] PDF (346K)
Himani Yadav and Rakesh Kumar
Department of I.T, MMU, Mullana, Haryana, India

Abstract -
Wireless networks are gaining popularity to its peak today, as the users want wireless connectivity irrespective of their geographic position. There is an increasing threat of attacks on the Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). Black hole attack is one of the security threat in which the traffic is redirected to such a node that actually does not exist in the network. It’s an analogy to the black hole in the universe in which things disappear. The node presents itself in such a way to the node that it can attack other nodes and networks knowing that it has the shortest path. MANETs must have a secure way for transmission and communication which is quite challenging and vital issue. In order to provide secure communication and transmission, researcher worked specifically on the security issues in MANETs, and many secure routing protocols and security measures within the networks were proposed. Previously the works done on security issues in MANETs were based on reactive routing protocol like Ad-Hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Different kinds of attacks were studied, and their effects were elaborated by stating how these attacks disrupt the performance of MANETs. The scope of this paper is to develop a technique to identify Black Hole Attack and then removal of Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). Simulation is done with Network Simulator (NS2).
 Index Terms - Black Hole, MANETs, NS-2 and Routing Protocol